“Shihonage: Show vs. Realism” by Stanley Pranin

Morihei Ueshiba demonstrating shihonage from his 1938 training manual Budo

Morihei Ueshiba demonstrating a perfectly executed shihonage from his 1938 training manual Budo

Shihonage is known as aikido’s “four-corner throw”. It involves twisting a partner’s wrist, a rapid pivot resulting in a powerful control of his wrist, followed by a throw.

 Shihonage performed in practice with a single hand controlling the opponent

Shihonage performed in practice with a single hand controlling the opponent

 Present Doshu Moriteru Ueshiba performing a one handed shihonage during demo

Present Doshu Moriteru Ueshiba performing a one handed shihonage during demo

But like anything else in aikido, there are a variety of different styles of performing the technique. Although the basic technique calls for holding your partner’s hand firmly with two hands, it is customary in many dojos to finish the technique holding your partner’s wrist with only one hand.

This can often be seen in aikido demonstrations where an attacker is quickly dispatched with a shihonage controled through a single hand. Often this will be accompanied with the opponent performing a spectacular high fall which never fails to impress an audience.

I think that we often forget the mechanics of basic techniques like shihonage and gravitate toward executing throws in a more spectacular fashion which leaves a strong impression in the eyes of the beholder. It is important to keep in mind that there is a strong element of collusion at play in a demonstration context.

What happens in the dojo when strong basics are emphasized may be less impressive but is far more effective and martial.

 Morihiro Saito executing a shihonage with full control over the opponent seen from a different angle

Morihiro Saito executing a shihonage with full control over the opponent seen from a different angle

What if we consider shihonage as a powerful tool to allow us to subdue and control an opponent? What would the technique look like then? Here are some examples where shihonage is applied with both hands controlling the opponent. Uke is locked in a backward falling position with no change to escape or execute a counterattack.

 The author executing shihonage where its off-balancing effect on the opponent is clearly visible

The author executing shihonage where the technique’s off-balancing effect on the opponent is clearly visible



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Closing up the loose ends: “More on Aikido’s Shomenuchi Dilemma” by Stanley Pranin

Aikido Founder Morihei Ueshiba has overcome an overhand knife attack by initiating and delivering an atemi

Aikido Founder Morihei Ueshiba has overcome an overhand attack by initiating and delivering an atemi

“To overcome the thesis presented here, you must explain how a motionless person can recognize an attack, devise a plan, spring into action, and overcome a high-speed attack in less than a second.”

Yesterday’s blog on the “Shomenuchi Dilemma” generated a good deal of commentary among Aikido Journal readers, especially on Facebook. There were those who agreed with my thesis — actually points stressed by Morihei Ueshiba, Morihiro Saito, and Shoji Nishio in their aikido instruction.

Still there were those who sidestepped the main point. A powerful shomen attack by an uke does not allow nage who is standing still to respond in time. The window of opportunity to analyze, initiate a move, and execute a counter-movement is too limited. This argument was ignored altogether by many of those offering comments.

Some opined that the purpose of this exercise is to blend with the overhead attack. Yes ideally that would allow nage the possibility to gain control over the encounter. This ignores the fact that nage who is responding only after uke’s attack doesn’t have enough time to blend. Look again at the two photos: nage is motionless and uke is at the halfway point of delivering his shomenuchi attack.

Another viewpoint expressed was that nage is not clashing against uke’s shomenuchi but rather that his left hand is moving up to blend with uke and then control the movement. I would agree that in a slow motion scenario this might be possible. But we’re not talking about a slow motion scenario but rather a high-speed overhand attack.

Still another comment was that the arms of nage and uke were not on a collision course and that the photos, being static, gave a misleading impression. I granted that the photos were “posed” and therefore lacked the dynamism of a practice session, but read again Tohei Sensei’s explanation:

… it is easy for you to collide with his strength and difficult for you to force him down backward. The irimi here, therefore, consists of turning your partner’s strength against him…

Maintain a mighty outpouring of ki from your hands and swing your arms up…

This is of course the objective and theoretically possible, but only against an uke delivering a slow-speed attack. If uke attacks powerlully, with full intent, and nage stands waiting for uke to initiate, nage will be overcome by the overhand blow because he has too little time to respond. He has an impossible disadvantage to overcome.

This is why Aikido Founder Morihei Ueshiba — echoed by Morihiro Saito — stressed the importance of nage initiating against a shomenuchi attack rather than responding.

If you think you can overcome and reverse a powerful overhand attack starting from a motionless posture, please watch this video by UFC Champion Chuck Liddell:

And for a humorous look at the result of a powerfully delivered shomenuchi, check this out:



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“The Origins of Modern Aikido: The Shomenuchi Dilemma” by Stanley Pranin


“If you want to know how aikido techniques changed
after the war, here is a good place to start!”

stanley-pranin-thumbnailLast year I published an article that dealt in some detail with the Shomenuchi Ikkyo technique of the prewar era. It discussed an earlier approach to doing techniques from the the shomenuchi (overhand strike attack). Several examples consisting of photos of Morihei Ueshiba and Gozo Shioda were presented. The thrust of the article was that it was important that nage (the person applying the technique) initiate the encounter in order to preempt a high-speed attack by uke and avoid a collision, something decidedly against the principles of aikido, the “art of harmony”.

Now, please have a look at the two photos above that depict Koichi Tohei, 10th dan. These photos are the start of the Shomenuchi ikkyo technique described in Tohei Sensei’s technical volume “This is Aikido” published in 1968.

Let us make some observations about these two photos. First, in photo #1, Tohei Sensei (nage) is standing in hanmi awaiting the shomen attack. His uke — Seishiro Endo — has launched a shomenuchi attack. Allowing for the fact that the photos may be artificial in that they are posed, we must still deal with the reality that nage has only a minute time frame to respond to uke’s attack that is already in progress.

Next, look at photo #2. What is described as a blend could equally be construed as a collision between nage and uke as their arms traveling in direct opposition make contact. In fairness, let us quote part of the description of the beginning of this technique from the book which describes the thinking behind this approach:

Although you throw your partner with an ikkyo much as you do in the kata-tori ikkyo…., since, in this technique, his attempted strike moves downward, it is easy for you to collide with his strength and difficult for you to force him down backward. The irimi here, therefore, consists of turning your partner’s strength against him…

Maintain a mighty outpouring of ki from your hands and swing your arms up…

If you’ll take the trouble to read the earlier article I mention, you will realize that a totally different approach is used. Nage is proactive and initiates the movement thus effectively neutralizing uke’s shomenuchi attack altogether and eliminating the risk of collision alluded to above.
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“How I figured out a way to quickly navigate Aikido’s vast curriculum” by Stanley Pranin

Photo-credit: Daniel Toutain Sensei

Photo-credit: Daniel Toutain Sensei

“Finding a needle in Aikido’s haystack of techniques!”

stanley-pranin-thumbnailA while ago I was having difficulty finding and grouping together aikido techniques even though I have literally thousands of books and videos to choose from in the Aikido Journal archives and on the net. And therein lies the problem: how do you quickly access specific techniques from the hundreds contained in the vast aikido curriculum?

We have amazing technology available to allow us to preserve and disseminate to a worldwide public any form of information we desire. But when you have millions of items to browse in order to find a specific set of information the problem boils down to the system of classification and method of quickly accessing the desired content. This is the exact problem I was facing.

One of my main purposes was to be able to create lesson plans without having to spend tons of time looking for related techniques and then wading through them. After thinking about this challenge for many months, I came up with a solution. Let me show you what what I did.

guide-interfaceAs you can see I created a table consisting of three columns: Attack, Technique, and Aiki Ken – Aiki Jo. The leftmost column groups techniques according to the type of attack. You click on one of the links in this column and you are presented with a list of all items corresponding to the particular attack available in the videos and books indexed.

The center column groups the content by technique. In a similar manner, clicking on a specific link accesses the same indexed content by type of technique. So you have two separate views of the technical archives depending on your purpose.

The third column is I believe self-explanatory: most of the Aiki Ken and Aiki Jo forms developed by Saito Sensei based on the teachings of Morihei Ueshiba O-Sensei are presented and retrievable via a single click.

If this concept interests you, please watch this 10 minute screencast below which will walk you through the interface of Morihiro Saito’s vast aikido curriculum consisting of more than 600 techniques.


Through a simple interface, you’ll have the ability to quickly access over 500 empty-handed and weapons techniques via 1,100 links to videos and technical explanations in book format. This is the most extensive technical reference on aikido ever compiled!

Click here for information on Morihiro Saito's &ldquoComplete Guide to Aikido”


An Aikido life… “Stanley Pranin’s new entry in Wikipedia”


“Pranin has given numerous lectures on Aikido history and the life of Aikido Founder, Morihei Ueshiba, in the USA, Mexico, France, and Japan”

We are pleased to report that Aikido Journal Editor Stanley Pranin has a new entry in Wikipedia. The entry is quite detailed and will afford interested readers a good idea of Stanley’s career in aikido as a practitioner, historian, and publisher. The text of the entry starts: “Stanley Pranin is an American publisher and editor-in-chief of Aikido Journal (formerly Aiki News), established in 1974. He is a researcher and archivist of Aikido history, author and publisher of several books and hundreds of articles about Aikido and Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu, Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido, and his students. Pranin’s lengthy career and leveraging of the Internet and social media have made him one of the most influential figures in the Aikido world.”

Click here to read Stanley Pranin’s Wikipedia entry.


Watch these videos for insights into solving the
technical problems that hold back your progress!

Click here for information on Stanley Pranin's “Zone Theory of Aikido” Course


Stanley Pranin: Frustrating your opponent’s ability to grab and moving to the blind spot

“Think carefully about what you do and why you do it”

Aikido training in virtually all styles follows a series of rituals. Students seldom question the techniques and assumptions that underlie what they are taught. As a result, poor training habits can gain a foothold and are perpetuated over generations.

Stanley Pranin takes a look at the simple katatedori — the single-hand grab — and proposes that we rethink our range of responses to gain an immediate advantage. This sets the stage for a successful execution of techniques.


Watch these videos for insights into solving the
technical problems that hold back your progress!

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Stanley Pranin discusses finding advantageous positions to apply aikido techniques (in Spanish)


Stanley Pranin discusses the idea of finding the most advantageous position to apply aikido techniques at a 2014 seminar in Mexico. Usually, the best position to be in is the blind spot of uke. This video illustrates one application of this concept.


Watch these videos for insights into solving the
technical problems that hold back your progress!

Click here for information on Stanley Pranin's “Zone Theory of Aikido” Course


Stanley Pranin demonstrates yoga and stretching exercises for Aikido


“How I saved my back for Aikido!”

I’m Stanley Pranin and today I’d like to show you some of the yoga and stretching exercises that I’ve incorporated into my aikido warmup routine.

About 25 years ago while living in Japan, I developed chronic back pain. I think it was mostly due to poor posture from working long hours at the computer. Although I remained active and regularly did stretching exercises, back pain was my constant companion.

Then about five years ago, I started taking yoga classes, something I should have done years earlier. The yoga postures I learned, together with my years of stretching in aikido practice, gave me the tools I needed to address my back pain. My back steadily improved to the point that I seldom feel pain anymore. If something is not right, I know exactly what stretching exercises to do to make the necessary adjustments and eliminate any pain.

Now, I would like to demonstrate some of the exercises that I use to warmup for aikido practice. The routine gradually changes over time, and I am always looking for new exercises that my body responds to well.

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Former Aikikai Employees… by Stanley Pranin



Stanley Pranin’s comments in reply to a posting on Facebook by a gentleman who will remain unnamed regarding the “Expunged” figures mentioned in his video blog.

Thank you, Sir, for your observations which motivate me to express a few views of my own on this fascinating subject. With any luck, I’ll be able to peddle a few more subscriptions due to the controversy in progress to which you have graciously added fuel. I’ll place my comments after yours in quotes so readers will be able to more easily follow.

“It’s fun to spin conspiracy theories and may help the Aikido Journal sell more subscriptions as well as other products. However, I don’t know of a single company that makes any efforts to extol the virtues of former employees that were either fired or left on their own to set up competing organizations.”

SP: It’s no secret that the Aikikai has a long standing policy not to recognize certain historical figures who have fallen out of their good graces, regardless of how important, in print or otherwise. One merely has to look at Kisshomaru Ueshiba Sensei’s biography of O-Sensei, “A Life in Aikido”. If I have alleged a conspiracy on the part of the Aikikai and implied that they have acted in secret, perhaps you could tell me what has led you to believe that I have done so.

To develop my “Expunged” hypothesis, I have mentioned six historical figures: Sokaku Takeda, Noriaki Inoue, Kenji Tomiki, Kiyoshi Nakakura, Koichi Tohei and Morihiro Saito. As an aikido history buff, amateurish as I may be, I’m having difficulty understanding who among them you might consider an Aikikai employee.

Sokaku Takeda, Morihei’s teacher, was actually quite well-to-do and predated the Aikikai. Cross him off the list.

Noriaki Inoue was the son of an extremely rich man who happened to marry Morihei’s elder sister. Inoue’s father, Zenzo, and uncle Koshiro helped finance Morihei at an early stage of his life and made donations to the Kobukan Dojo at least through the 1930s. Since the Inoues were filthy rich, donated money to Morihei, and predated the Aikikai, it can’t be Inoue to whom you refer either.

Next is Kenji Tomiki. He was a school teacher, then a martial arts instructor in Manchuria, perhaps paid a salary by the Kwantung Army (I don’t know for sure. Remember I am only an amateur historian) and Shinkoku University where he taught. After the war, Tomiki was a professor at the elite Waseda University. Perhaps the Aikikai gave him some travel money from time to time when he taught there, but I doubt that he could be considered an employee either before or after the war. I will take the liberty of scratching him off the list too.

Next is Kiyoshi Nakakura who married Morihei’s daughter and lived at the Kobukan Dojo from 1932-37. He was given the name of Morihiro Ueshiba. He was a star in the kendo world and was being groomed to be Morihei’s successor.

Maybe you mean him? But somehow I don’t think so. In any event, he predated the Aikikai, so this is a moot point.

Then we have Koichi Tohei. Perhaps we’re zeroing in on your target, no? His ranking was of course the first 10th dan issued by the Aikikai. He filled the position of Shihan Bucho — chief instructor — of the Aikikai for many years. He was the leading light of the Aikikai, a charismatic teacher, an author, the pioneer of aikido in Hawaii and USA. But… I’m sure he DID receive money from the Aikikai. That must be the Aikikai employee you mean! Well, he wasn’t fired, he actually resigned. And I suppose you could say he set up a competing organization. We have finally found an employee among the list.

One more to consider. This would be Morihiro Saito, my personal teacher. He worked his entire professional life for the JNR (Japan National Railways) and could travel free by train anywhere. This made him cheap to have teach because you didn’t have to cover travel costs. Oh, I almost forgot, he learned aikido a bit from O-Sensei. Also, he and his wife were servants of Morihei and his wife Hatsu in Iwama for almost 20 years. But since he was a government employee, I don’t think we can justify calling him an employee of the Aikikai. He died wealthy, but not because of the Aikikai, but because he was a damn good teacher!

So, by process of elimination I can guess that you mean Koichi Tohei was the employee you were thinking of. Sorry it took so long to figure it out.

“So, in this case, neither are the so called “Expunged” innocent victims nor is the Aikikai guilty of any nefarious action. Koichi Tohei left the Aikikai and became one of its largest competitors. He also openly disparaged the technical prowess of his teacher, Morihei Ueshiba, in an Aikido Journal interview. Under the circumstances, what duty does the Ueshiba family have to preserve and praise his memory?”

SP: Your next comment opens up a bag of worms. First of all, who stated that the “Expunged” were innocent victims? Do I detect a straw man argument here somewhere? You see, as I mentioned in my video, I had some or extensive contact with all of these figures except of course for Sokaku Takeda who died before I was born. I can confirm what you say that they were all critical of the Aikikai, except for Kenji Tomiki who was a gentlemanly type figure who did not speak that way to me. You’re right that Tohei Sensei openly disparaged Morihei. In fact, he did the same thing to me in private when he called me into a room on the second floor of Hombu and chewed me out! Boy, was I pissed at him too! I got over it eventually, and even was able to get on good terms with him years later and interviewed him several times.

He may have wished to compete with the Aikikai, but he did not succeed. His organization is dwarfed in size by the Aikikai. I doubt that the Ki Society is even one-tenth the size of the Aikikai.

I agree that the Ueshiba family has no duty to preserve and praise his memory. I’ve done it for them. Tohei Sensei was not my favorite person in the world, but I’m big enough to recognize his preeminent role in the development of aikido. With me, it’s a moral obligation to recognize these important figures, my personal feelings aside.

Let me tell you what’s wrong with the Aikikai ignoring these people. First, the books authored by Kisshomaru and Moriteru are perhaps the most widely read works on aikido. Many of them were published by Kodansha, Japan’s largest publishing house. If you pretend to write about the history of the art, use a large publisher, and your books sell the most, you’d better do a good job of it. If you don’t, some cheeky, upstart American is going to come along and put your thesis under the spotlight. And then the discrepancies between the two views will come to light. If you’re the Aikikai, you’re going to have some explaining to do. You can remain silent, but the Internet will judge you harshly. You’ll lose in the world of public opinion because your tactics are untenable.

“Morihiro Saito openly derided Hombu and successive generations of the Ueshiba family for decades while remaining an Aikikai employee and residing on Ueshiba family property. After his father’s passing, Hitohiro, in gross insubordination tried to claim an “inheritance” that, in his rank of a junior Aikikai shihan, wasn’t his to demand.”

You are indeed correct that Morihiro Saito, my teacher, derided the Hombu Dojo. He did it in my presence a thousand times. I repeated to him privately over and over again that I thought that this was a bad policy. But he didn’t listen and continued. We have seen the consequences of his actions.

An Aikikai employee? Do you refer to monetary gifts he received to cover costs to keep up the Iwama Dojo, the Aiki Shrine, and Ueshiba property? Was this a salary he received? He lived on Ueshiba property? Sir, you know not of what you speak. The Saito home in Iwama next to the dojo and opposite the Aiki Shrine is SAITO property! The land was a gift from Morihei to Morihiro Saito for having helped settle a land dispute that O-Sensei was involved in in the early 1950s. O-Sensei told him to build a house there. Saito Sensei did so. It was understood that Saito Sensei and his wife would serve Morihei and Hatsu for their rest of their lives. And that was what they did. They were not ungrateful freeloaders, but accepted a subservient position out of Morihiro’s love for the Founder.

As to your unkind remarks about Hitohiro Saito Sensei, I doubt that you have any first hand information. I will limit myself to offering a link to Hitohiro Saito’s comments in an open letter about his resignation from the Aikikai. You may not agree with what he writes, but at least readers will get his side of the story.

“What, in turn, has the Ueshiba family said about any of this in public? Nothing. Not one word. Is this due to some conspiracy? Hardly! The Aikikai does not memorialize any of its deceased or departed Shihan. The Hombu website makes no mention of ANY deceased Aikikai Shihan (i.e. Kisaburo Osawa, Shigenobu Okumura, Sadateru Arikawa, Michio Hikitsuchi, Seiseki Abe, Hiroshi Kato, Shiji Nishio, Nobuyoshi Tamura, Seigo Yamaguchi, Aikira Tohei, Masando Sasaki, or Mitsunari Kanai)”

SP: I would agree with you here. The Aikikai has done nothing in public. They act behind the scenes. I have been the target on several occasions where unscrupulous means were used by those at the highest levels of the organization to attack me. I am battled tested, my friend. I know who I’m dealing with.

A final thought. Neither does the Aikikai memorialize the Founder of Aikido, not just departed shihan. Morihei Ueshiba is just a fatherly figure who lends credence to the Aikikai cause. His life, his techniques, and his philosophy have very little impact in the aikido world thanks to their non-efforts. You praise their silence. I am saddened by people who don’t practice the concept of “ongaeshi”, the return of gratitude for services rendered. We’re talking here about the Founder of Aikido. He surely merits prominent mention.

But that’s ok, I’ll do it for them.

Stanley Pranin has been researching the origins of aikido, the life of its Founder and related topics for over 40 years. Information on this huge body of research and publications is available here.

[The continuation of our exchange can be found in the comments below the blog.]


O-Sensei’s “Cupped Hand” — The Secret to Ura Movements by Stanley Pranin


“O-Sensei can easily perform a variety of techniques where uke is powerless to resist because he has lost his balance.”

Many dojos practice aikido’s tai no henko exercise regularly or even religiously during every session. Some teachers will explain that this is a blending movement that allows one to set up for certain aikido throws. But what is really happening? Let’s take a closer look.

First, consider this wonderful image of Aikido Founder Morihei Ueshiba at the point of completion of tai no henko.

Notice that his hand is in a “cupped” position. What is the purpose of this rather strange hand form? Looking closer we see that this tai no henko blend has brought uke’s torso forward and down. Expressed otherwise, uke has been unbalanced.

How has this been accomplished? Uke first grabbed nage’s wrist from the side. O-Sensei’s pivoting motion and cupped hand have conveyed mechanical energy through uke’s arm that has caused him to loose balance forward and down as is readily evident in the photo. From here, O-Sensei can easily perform a variety of techniques where uke is powerless to resist because he has lost his balance.

Here we see the entire process masterly performed by Morihiro Saito Sensei.

tai-no-henko-sequenceLastly, I demonstrate an adaptation of this same “cupped” hand movement as a setup to unbalance uke before moving to his flank. From here, ikkyo through yonkyo omote techniques can be very effectively applied. This approach is part of my “Zone Theory of Aikido” research.

In my next article, I would like to talk about the mechanics of the kokyuho movement and its function in aikido techniques.


Watch these videos for insights into solving the
technical problems that hold back your progress!

Click here for information on Stanley Pranin's “Zone Theory of Aikido” Course


Make Your Techniques Work! Stanley Pranin’s “Zone Theory of Aikido Course”!

Stanley Pranin’s “Zone Theory of Aikido Course”!

“Rethinking Aikido Training From The Bottom Up!”

stanley-pranin-encyHi, I’m Stanley Pranin here to tell you about my new online video course, the “Zone Theory of Aikido”.

You know I’ve been involved in Aikido for more than 50 years. To tell the truth, Aikido has been my life. I can’t think of a better discipline to train well-rounded, fit people with excellent self-defense skills.

That being said, I believe we still have a long way to go to develop more refined teaching methodologies to accelerate students’ advancement in the art.

What do I mean? Well, I travel frequently in Aikido circles and train with practitioners of many different styles. I’ve found similar training patterns regardless of the approach to Aikido. I consider one of the biggest hurdles to improving one’s skills is the almost universal tendency to resort to physical strength in attempting to make techniques work.

When aikido practitioners get stuck, they tense up and try to force their way through the technique. I see this everywhere I go. For many years, I experienced the same thing in my own training. Only recently, have I been able to discover ways of using the body as a unified structure when applying techniques. What a difference this has made!

This has been a liberating discovery that has allowed me to totally rethink my way of approaching the execution of techniques. My techniques work now, consistently, even against training partners of superior strength. This has never happened before!

In the “Zone Theory of Aikido” video course consisting of 25 lessons, I’m going to walk you through this innovative approach to doing aikido. I will show you ways of using your body more efficiently. I will explain the importance of positioning, balance-breaking… how to use atemi, kiai, and O-Sensei’s hitoemi stance to give you a tremendous advantage in practice. I look forward to sharing this whole new world of training principles and strategies with you.

Get it today and watch your progress accelerate!



“Words of advice for the starving yoga teacher,” by Stanley Pranin


“Everything mentioned here could be readily applied to the starving Aikido teacher!”

This is a slightly modified version of an article I wrote some months ago for one of my yoga teachers who was lamenting the fact that she couldn’t make a living doing yoga alone. Everything mentioned here could be readily applied to the starving Aikido teacher as well.

I’ve been thinking a bit more about one interesting way a yoga teacher might apply various Internet marketing techniques to enhance her reach and income.

Here is a hypothetical example. A yoga instructor goes to a park with her mat on a day with good weather. She finds a shady area under a large tree. By choosing such a location you don’t have to worry about harsh shadows. A friend comes with a video camera and tripod. If two friends are available, so much the better, as the yoga poses can be shot from two different angles.

She proceeds to perform a yoga routine at a slow to moderate speed that consists of about 25 (or whatever number) of asanas. There is no talking in the video, she just concentrates on performing the routine as expertly and gracefully as possible.

She goes home and takes the memory card(s) from the camera and fires up her laptop and inserts the card. She uses an inexpensive video editor like Sony Vegas Movie Studio to edit the video.

The video is cut up into 27 parts. The first part is an intro 1-2 minutes in length, then the 25 poses, and finally, an “outro” with contact information, link and whatever other relevant information that serves as a “call to action” for the viewer at the end of each segment. In other words, you want the viewer to take some specific action like provide an email address, go to a website or page.

The first edited video consists of the intro and the first pose with its title in Sanskrit and English. The instructor sets up her microphone and, while viewing the video footage, records a soundtrack which would be similar to her speech during a yoga class. An additional soundtrack consisting of royalty-free meditative type music may optionally be added.

If she wants to go into further detail, the footage at normal speed can be repeated and attached as a slow motion section thus tripling the length of the first installment. The overall length of the video clips should be no more than 3-4 minutes. Even 2 minutes is fine because people are in a hurry and want to consume the information in convenient, bite-size portions.

After the soundtracks are added to the video and all editing is complete, the video clip is uploaded to youtube. (If you don’t already have a youtube account, you need to set one up.) In the description section on youtube below the video, all relevant contact information and explanations with a clickable link are provided.
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