Morihei’s 1938 Training Manual: “A study of techniques that is highly relevant to modern aikido”

Here, I would like to offer a few comments about the manual titled simply “Budo,” and point out some aspects of its technical significance. One of the immediate obvious characteristics of “Budo” is the frequent appearance of “atemi” or combative strikes used by Morihei during the setup and execution of techniques. In the postwar era, the use of atemi became less frequent and was downright discouraged within the Aikikai system as being excessively violent and counter to the harmonious nature of aikido.

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