Biography of Tempu Nakamura: “Heaven’s_Wind_Part_III,” by Stephen Earle

A chapter from Stephen Earle’s seminal English biography of Tempu Nakamura…

“The emerging current in Japanese intellectual circles that most appealed to Sun’s sensibilities was what has subsequently been termed pan-Asianism. In the 1920s and 30s, this term would be turned into a euphemism for Japanese imperialism, but in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries the doctrine it described was largely pure in intent. Its proponents were motivated by a genuine desire to see Asia freed from the yoke of Western colonialism and brought into its own as a collection of sovereign states under indigenous rule. As concerned China, in response to the English-American “open door” doctrine that only thinly masked intentions of partition, Japan supported a “preserve China” policy that favored reform and modernization adequate to withstand Western aggression.”

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