Lorenzo Trainelli has kindly sent us this Italian translation of an article written by Stanley Pranin, editor of Aikido Journal in November 1985
There are few areas which elicit as much emotion and comment as the topic of the recognition of the ability and service of practitioners through the awarding of ranks. In Aikido as in every martial discipline, there are individuals who are clearly competent and those whose backgrounds and lineage cannot withstand even cursory scrutiny
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